More than four out of 10 (42%) respondents said they face conflicting demands while at work, while 29% have admitted they regularly think about quitting their job.
Almost 165,000 NHS staff in England were questioned for the survey, and the results give a mixed picture over what it is like to work in the health service.
Certain areas have seen improvements compared with last year's poll, such as an 8% increase in staff who have received appraisals - now at 77%.
The number of workers that would be happy with the standard of care provided by their health trust if their friend or relative needed treatment rose by 2% to 64%, with those that disagreed at 11%, and 26% neither agreeing or disagreeing.
Overall, 90% of staff believe their role ultimately makes a difference to patients, and 62% are able to do their job to a standard they are personally pleased with, while 21% disagree.
However, 42% believe they "cannot meet all the conflicting demands" on their time at work, while 32% think they can and 27% neither agree or disagree.
About 45% do not think there are enough staff at their workplace for them to do their job properly, while 32% agree there is and 23% neither agree or disagree.
Overall, 84% said they "often do more than is required" and only 27% agree that "senior managers try to involve staff in important decisions", with 43% disagreeing and 30% neither agreeing or disagreeing.
Half agree "senior managers where I work are committed to patient care", with 15% disagreeing and 35% neither agreeing or disagreeing.
Cynthia Bower, CQC's chief executive, said: "I know that the vast majority of NHS employees are personally committed and motivated to do the best work they possibly can.
"The survey results will help trusts to pinpoint what else they can do to support and develop staff to ensure they can provide the best care for patients."
Copyright © Press Association 2011